Support – International Barcodes Ltd Knowledge Base

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Barcode basics 6 questions
  • What is a barcode?

    A barcode is a barred image (in multiple styles) encoded with a unique number, that can be easily read by a barcode scanner or cell phone app.

    Commonly used on retail products

    Barcodes are most commonly seen on retail products for pulling up price and product information at the checkout. In this case, the barcode is simply a 12- or 13-digit number encoded as an image (UPC or EAN13 format).

    Barcodes are passive and unintelligent

    Barcodes don’t perform any action; they are simply read by a scanner.

    The intelligence is in the software

    Barcodes are delivered with only the encoded number. This number has to be associated with information (such as a product or URL) by the barcode user (such as a retailer), through software setup/programming.

    At scanning time the barcode remains unintelligent. The scanner scans and the software application reacts to the data in the scan.

    So the scanner (or cellphone scanner) says to the local software application “Here is the number from this dumb barcode.”

    And the software application says

    • “Here is a display of the information that I’m programmed to associate with that number”, or
    • “I’m running this software action that I’m programmed to associate with that number”.

     

  • How important is barcode quality?

    Barcode quality is VERY important.

    If you are spending hundreds or thousands of dollars on printing your product packaging, then it is false economy to try to save a few dollars on a barcode number.

    Quote from one of our customers:

    “I wish I had found you earlier. I just produced 40,000 bottles of wine and them found that the barcode doesn’t work. My wife now has to take all the bottles out of their boxes to put a new barcode label on them”.

     

  • Do I need a barcode for my product?

    A barcode is only required where product-scanning is expected.

    Products are scanned for two main reasons:

    • To facilitate automated processing and tracking at point-of-sale
    • To facilitate automated inventory control

    If you are going to sell your product through an outlet that does not require product-scanning (such as a flea market, a community sale, or a local farm stall), then a barcode is unnecessary.

    If in doubt, ask this question of the outlet through which you intend selling the product.

  • Does the barcode number indicate the country of origin?

    Briefly:

    Yes, it does indicate the country where the barcode number was originally registered.

    No, it does not necessarily indicate the country of origin of the product.
    It is not compulsory for the barcode country of origin to match the product country of origin (e.g. you can legitimately sell a French product with a US barcode number). Our barcode numbers originate in the US, and our users from all over he world sell products using these US-origin barcode numbers.

    Background

    The global barcode licensor, GS1 would likely want barcode country prefixes to correlate to country product sales, but they would require a monopolistic control of barcode numbers to enforce this.

    They do not have such a complete monopoly… millions of their own US-origin barcode numbers have been traded internationally outside of their control since 2002, so it would be infeasible for them to declare their own barcode numbers illegitimate.

     

    Only the country of origin of the barcode number itself is indicated:

    The first few digits on EAN-13 barcode numbers indicate the country of origin of the barcode number.

    The first 3 digits are the “Country Code”, also known as the GS1 Prefix. They indicate the GS1 Member Organization where the manufacturer registered the bar codes. These prefixes do not show where your product was manufactured, nor where your product is being sold.
    To be clear, it is not compulsory for products in a country to have barcode numbers with that country’s GS1 Prefix.

    Where this becomes confusing is that 1) some retailers don’t understand this, and 2) for their own purposes, some barcode dealers imply a requirement for barcode prefix to match the country of the product being sold.

    We use US-origin barcodes

    Our barcode numbers start with 06 or 07, which indicates that the barcode numbers originally come from the US.

    We supply these 06 and 07 numbers to customers globally, and they are now being used in 100+ countries.

    They originated from the Uniform Code Council (UCC), and were initially issued to UCC members in the US.

    When the UCC became GS1 (Global Standards 1), they attempted to regain regulatory control of these issued barcodes, but lost control of them when their own members brought a class action against them.

    These pre-2002 barcodes are valid and legitimate, and they are the only barcodes that you can still buy and own.

    All other barcodes are locked down in a business model where you have to pay annual license fees for each barcode for the sales-lifetime of its associated product.

  • Are barcode numbers globally registered?

    Not compulsory:

    There is no compulsory international barcode registration.

    A retail barcode still works perfectly without registration because stores input the barcode number and link it to their systems on an individual, closed-system basis.

    However, there are many online databases to which you can register barcodes.

    Use our free registration service to register your barcode numbers in multiple online databases:

    Our registration service registers the barcode number and product/manufacturer in one online database, and this data then feeds to several other online databases, making it easier for people to find your barcode number or product via Internet searches and some smart phone barcode scanning apps.

    Search success depends on the search engine and scanning Apps:

    Note that Internet search success depends on which search engine you are using, and how well that has indexed the Internet.

    There are a lot of barcode scanning apps – and more being released regularly.

    The online places that they search varies from app to app:

    • Some apps such as the Zebra Scanning App look directly in databases and should find barcodes/products registered through our registration service.
    • Some apps assume that the user is wanting to find the product for sale in an online shop in their vicinity, so these apps will search in online streets nearby …  obviously they are more likely to find your product if it is for sale in online stores in that region.
    • Some apps have other search algorithms which are hard to understand.
    • Most apps change or update where they search regularly, so the results can change over time.

    In summary… the success of searching or scanning depends on which search engine or app you use, and how much information is available on the Internet, including online stores.

    Our registration helps with this visibility, depending on which search engine or app you are using, and where that app is currently searching.

    Register on the International Barcodes Database for free:

    The International Barcodes Network has created the Barcodes Database, which is now the most comprehensive barcodes database available.

    People who purchase barcodes through members of the International Barcodes Network can register their barcodes on this database free of charge.

    Reasons to register your barcode number:

    • Google search for your barcode number will return the product information, and
    • The barcode / product information will appear if your barcode is scanned with a cellphone app scanner such as Red Laser.
  • Can I have a barcode Company Prefix?

    Background

    Some manufacturers wish to have a unique company prefix for their barcodes.

    Two ways to obtain a company prefix:

    There are only two sure ways to get a company prefix like this

    1. Join GS1 and pay their expensive joining fee and annual fees for the rest of your product life, or
    2. Purchase barcodes from us in blocks of 10, 100, 1000 or 10,000, and these bulk purchases come with a unique company prefix.

    We are the ONLY barcode seller that we know of that provides unique company prefixes like this.

    If you purchase 1 barcode number, then you will not be supplied with a company prefix (no barcode company supplies this).

    However if you purchase barcodes in lots of 10, 100, 1000 etc from us, then they will have a unique company prefix.

    Length of the company prefix:

    The length of the company prefix will depend on how many variations are required to make a total of 13-digits:

    If you purchase 10 barcode numbers, then of the 13-digits,

    • the first 11 will be your company prefix,
    • the 12th digit will vary from 0-9 (giving you 10 different barcode numbers), and
    • the last digit is a calculated checksum.

    If you purchase 20 barcode numbers,

    • you will get 2 company prefixes (giving 10 barcodes for each).

    If you purchase 100 barcode numbers, then of the 13-digits,

    • the first 10 will be your company prefix,
    • the 11th and 12th digits will vary from 00-99 (giving you 100 different barcode numbers), and
    • the last digit is a calculated checksum.
2. Barcode authenticity and legitimacy 1 question
  • Are the barcodes that you sell legitimate?

    YES!

    Put briefly:

    We are an international network of barcode resellers.
    Our barcodes originated from members of the current global barcode body, GS1, whose founder organisation, the UCC, sold them prior to 2002.
    They are globally unique, authentic numbers, and we have over a million of them in use in more than 120 countries. We provide certificates of authenticity with each sale and we can show customers how to verify the original legitimate source of barcodes purchased from us.

    Put in more detail:

    Our barcode numbers originate from the Uniform Code Council (now called GS1), when the early UCC initially sold millions of numbers through their member organisations in the USA.

    In 2002 the UCC changed from a sales model to a more lucrative licensing model, where barcode-users have to pay both membership and recurring license fees for the sales-lifetime of their products.
    At this time the UCC tried to compel their member organisations to comply with restrictive new requirements, including annual renewal fees and contractual agreements on the use of barcode prefixes.
    UCC member organisations objected, brought a class action against the UCC itself, and won, causing the UCC (now GS1) to settle out of court in August 2002, without regaining control of their members’ barcode numbers.

    As a result, the barcode numbers being traded by UCC members escaped monopolistic regulation, and to this day those millions of US-origin barcode numbers are the only legitimate barcode numbers that can be bought-and-sold anywhere in the world… all other barcode numbers post-2002 are now expensively licensed-for-use.

    GS1 remains responsible for regulatory oversight on the uniqueness of the numbers that they originally sold – they can neither duplicate nor discredit the numbers that users in good faith purchased from their UCC members prior to 2002.

    In other words, these barcode numbers remain today as legitimate and authentic as they have always been. We purchase them in bulk from the US and resell them to the public around the world. To date we have re-sold more than a million barcode numbers in some 120 countries.

    Barcode buyers are understandably confused with this situation, which is why we provide a Guarantee of uniqueness for every barcode sale, we remain vigilant for any  suggestions that our barcodes are illegitimate, and on request we can show documentary proof of our barcode numbers originating with a UCC (GS1) Member.

    Users can also independently prove the legitimacy of our barcode numbers:

    It is possible for barcode users to independently verify the legitimacy of our barcode numbers via online databases. See this article: How can I prove that my barcode is legitimate?

3. Buying barcodes from us 5 questions
  • Do you supply barcodes in my country?

    Customer countries

    We have sold barcodes to customers in 120+ countries (that we know of).

    Because we have online sales mechanisms, this figure can increase at any moment.

    Our member (reseller) countries

    Our members supply barcodes directly into 60+ countries (and growing).

    See here for a list of our member countries: https://internationalbarcodes.net/barcode-suppliers/

  • Do I need to pay recurring fees, as for GS1?

    NO!

    We don’t charge membership or recurring license fees!

    We don’t claim the right to re-use your barcode numbers as GS1 does when you stop paying the recurring license fees for them.

    We sell barcodes that you then own forever, without being beholden to anyone for them.

  • If your barcodes are legitimate, why are they so reasonably-priced?

    If you’re asking this question, it’s likely because you’ve researched the pricing of GS1 barcodes (GS1 is the controlling body of all legitimate barcode numbers, including ours).

    From our point of view, the question should be “Why are GS1 barcodes so unfairly expensive?” And you’d need to ask GS1 for an explanation because our truthful answer could be considered inflammatory.

    We charge a single fair price for you to purchase barcode numbers outright and own them forever.

    In terms of legitimacy… yes, our barcodes are legitimate!
    In fact they are sourced from GS1 themselves, when they were still the “UCC”.
    For an explanation, please see the various QAs in the “Barcode authenticity and legitimacy” section above.

  • Can I have a barcode Company Prefix?

    Background

    Some manufacturers wish to have a unique company prefix for their barcodes.

    Two ways to obtain a company prefix:

    There are only two sure ways to get a company prefix like this

    1. Join GS1 and pay their expensive joining fee and annual fees for the rest of your product life, or
    2. Purchase barcodes from us in blocks of 10, 100, 1000 or 10,000, and these bulk purchases come with a unique company prefix.

    We are the ONLY barcode seller that we know of that provides unique company prefixes like this.

    If you purchase 1 barcode number, then you will not be supplied with a company prefix (no barcode company supplies this).

    However if you purchase barcodes in lots of 10, 100, 1000 etc from us, then they will have a unique company prefix.

    Length of the company prefix:

    The length of the company prefix will depend on how many variations are required to make a total of 13-digits:

    If you purchase 10 barcode numbers, then of the 13-digits,

    • the first 11 will be your company prefix,
    • the 12th digit will vary from 0-9 (giving you 10 different barcode numbers), and
    • the last digit is a calculated checksum.

    If you purchase 20 barcode numbers,

    • you will get 2 company prefixes (giving 10 barcodes for each).

    If you purchase 100 barcode numbers, then of the 13-digits,

    • the first 10 will be your company prefix,
    • the 11th and 12th digits will vary from 00-99 (giving you 100 different barcode numbers), and
    • the last digit is a calculated checksum.
  • Can you customise my barcode with artwork?

    YES, within the limits of what is possible on a barcode.

    Background:

    Barcodes can be transformed from being purely functional (and ugly) to integrating with the product design, or even enhancing the design.

    Examples:

       

    Any good designer can probably modify the barcode, but…

    • Designers are often expensive, and
    • Sometimes they damage the barcode so that it won’t scan well.

    We have dedicated designers who can provide custom barcode artwork for customers at reasonable prices.

    Guidelines:

    Please keep in mind that any image impeding on the barcode itself may affect scannability of the barcode.

    So it is safest to build up the art around the barcode bars, bearing in mind the barcode dimensions.

    Requesting custom barcode artwork:

    1. Purchase the barcode number.
    2. Tell us about your company, your products, and you art requirements.
    3. Our designers can then create a design for you.
4. International 4 questions
  • Do you supply barcodes in my country?

    Customer countries

    We have sold barcodes to customers in 120+ countries (that we know of).

    Because we have online sales mechanisms, this figure can increase at any moment.

    Our member (reseller) countries

    Our members supply barcodes directly into 60+ countries (and growing).

    See here for a list of our member countries: https://internationalbarcodes.net/barcode-suppliers/

  • Does the barcode number indicate the country of origin?

    Briefly:

    Yes, it does indicate the country where the barcode number was originally registered.

    No, it does not necessarily indicate the country of origin of the product.
    It is not compulsory for the barcode country of origin to match the product country of origin (e.g. you can legitimately sell a French product with a US barcode number). Our barcode numbers originate in the US, and our users from all over he world sell products using these US-origin barcode numbers.

    Background

    The global barcode licensor, GS1 would likely want barcode country prefixes to correlate to country product sales, but they would require a monopolistic control of barcode numbers to enforce this.

    They do not have such a complete monopoly… millions of their own US-origin barcode numbers have been traded internationally outside of their control since 2002, so it would be infeasible for them to declare their own barcode numbers illegitimate.

     

    Only the country of origin of the barcode number itself is indicated:

    The first few digits on EAN-13 barcode numbers indicate the country of origin of the barcode number.

    The first 3 digits are the “Country Code”, also known as the GS1 Prefix. They indicate the GS1 Member Organization where the manufacturer registered the bar codes. These prefixes do not show where your product was manufactured, nor where your product is being sold.
    To be clear, it is not compulsory for products in a country to have barcode numbers with that country’s GS1 Prefix.

    Where this becomes confusing is that 1) some retailers don’t understand this, and 2) for their own purposes, some barcode dealers imply a requirement for barcode prefix to match the country of the product being sold.

    We use US-origin barcodes

    Our barcode numbers start with 06 or 07, which indicates that the barcode numbers originally come from the US.

    We supply these 06 and 07 numbers to customers globally, and they are now being used in 100+ countries.

    They originated from the Uniform Code Council (UCC), and were initially issued to UCC members in the US.

    When the UCC became GS1 (Global Standards 1), they attempted to regain regulatory control of these issued barcodes, but lost control of them when their own members brought a class action against them.

    These pre-2002 barcodes are valid and legitimate, and they are the only barcodes that you can still buy and own.

    All other barcodes are locked down in a business model where you have to pay annual license fees for each barcode for the sales-lifetime of its associated product.

  • Are barcode numbers globally registered?

    Not compulsory:

    There is no compulsory international barcode registration.

    A retail barcode still works perfectly without registration because stores input the barcode number and link it to their systems on an individual, closed-system basis.

    However, there are many online databases to which you can register barcodes.

    Use our free registration service to register your barcode numbers in multiple online databases:

    Our registration service registers the barcode number and product/manufacturer in one online database, and this data then feeds to several other online databases, making it easier for people to find your barcode number or product via Internet searches and some smart phone barcode scanning apps.

    Search success depends on the search engine and scanning Apps:

    Note that Internet search success depends on which search engine you are using, and how well that has indexed the Internet.

    There are a lot of barcode scanning apps – and more being released regularly.

    The online places that they search varies from app to app:

    • Some apps such as the Zebra Scanning App look directly in databases and should find barcodes/products registered through our registration service.
    • Some apps assume that the user is wanting to find the product for sale in an online shop in their vicinity, so these apps will search in online streets nearby …  obviously they are more likely to find your product if it is for sale in online stores in that region.
    • Some apps have other search algorithms which are hard to understand.
    • Most apps change or update where they search regularly, so the results can change over time.

    In summary… the success of searching or scanning depends on which search engine or app you use, and how much information is available on the Internet, including online stores.

    Our registration helps with this visibility, depending on which search engine or app you are using, and where that app is currently searching.

    Register on the International Barcodes Database for free:

    The International Barcodes Network has created the Barcodes Database, which is now the most comprehensive barcodes database available.

    People who purchase barcodes through members of the International Barcodes Network can register their barcodes on this database free of charge.

    Reasons to register your barcode number:

    • Google search for your barcode number will return the product information, and
    • The barcode / product information will appear if your barcode is scanned with a cellphone app scanner such as Red Laser.
  • Should I use EAN-13 or UPC-A barcodes?

    Traditionally, UPC-A format barcodes have been used in the USA and EAN-13 format barcodes have been used throughout the rest of the world.

    Today, most international stores accept barcodes in either format.

    However, there may be some older systems that only accept one or the other.

    So to play it safe…

    • If your product is being sold in the USA, the UPC-A format barcodes are best.
    • If your product is international / sold in a country other than the USA, an EAN-13 barcode is best.

    If you encounter a store that has difficulty reading your EAN-13 or UPC-A barcode, they can either ignore the leading ‘0’ or add a leading ‘0’ depending on how many digits their system prefers.

    In this way the barcode will read the same as the opposite format (as the bars are identical regardless) and will still be globally unique.

    We sell both UPC-A and EAN-13 numbers.

5. Using your barcode 5 questions
  • How important is barcode quality?

    Barcode quality is VERY important.

    If you are spending hundreds or thousands of dollars on printing your product packaging, then it is false economy to try to save a few dollars on a barcode number.

    Quote from one of our customers:

    “I wish I had found you earlier. I just produced 40,000 bottles of wine and them found that the barcode doesn’t work. My wife now has to take all the bottles out of their boxes to put a new barcode label on them”.

     

  • Do I need a barcode for my product?

    A barcode is only required where product-scanning is expected.

    Products are scanned for two main reasons:

    • To facilitate automated processing and tracking at point-of-sale
    • To facilitate automated inventory control

    If you are going to sell your product through an outlet that does not require product-scanning (such as a flea market, a community sale, or a local farm stall), then a barcode is unnecessary.

    If in doubt, ask this question of the outlet through which you intend selling the product.

  • How can I be sure that my barcode will work? (Verification)

    If you print barcodes we have no control of their quality:

    We provide barcode images in four digital formats that provide our users with many options.

    But what happens between your digital receipt of images and your final printed barcode on a physical product is of course out of our quality control.

    If you go through professional printers or publishers they should know exactly what to do, but non-professionals can introduce a range of faults that can then cause your product barcodes to be poorly-readable.

    This is why many larger retailers require a form of guarantee that your barcodes are not going to cause distress at their checkouts.

    We have a Barcode Verification service that can check / confirm your barcode quality:

    To cater to this we have an optional service called Barcode Verification – a test scan of the barcode exactly as it will be printed on the product packaging. These tests are done on a technical scanning machine that measures how easily and accurately the barcode is likely to scan in a variety of different environments.

    The report will either come back with a pass grade (A, B, C or D) or a Fail grade (in which case reasons will be given for the failure).

    High standards in our verification reports:

    Our verification reports are done to an internationally accepted standard with the best verification technology.

    Test procedure:

    In order to properly adhere to these standards, we require that you send us a sample of your barcode on its product packaging, exactly as it will be printed.

    Reports take 2-3 days to complete once we receive your packaging, so you need to allow for this time in addition to the time it will take the packaging to reach us.

    Once we receive an order, we contact you regarding the testing procedure this contact will normally take 2-24 hours, depending on the time of day/week that you make the order, and from which timezone you originate. Our normal office hours are 7am – 7pm Mon-Fri (NZ time), plus we process some orders on Saturday whenever possible.

    See also: IBN Verification web page: https://internationalbarcodes.com/barcode-verification/

  • What could cause barcodes to fail scanning?

    We supply high resolution barcode images electronically in four different formats.

    However, between your receipt of the images and the final print of the barcode on your product, many factors can reduce its ability to be read by a scanner.

    Users frequently create barcodes with the wrong dimensions:

    Just over 10% of the verification reports that we do are fails.

    This is usually because users have made simple mistakes with the dimensions of the barcode.

    If users need a barcode verification report they should first ensure that their barcode adheres to the Standard Barcode Dimensions.

    Other pre-emptive checks that users can do:

    Test scan the barcode yourself with a handheld scanner before sending it to us.
    If it doesn’t scan well with your scanner, it likely won’t pass a verification report.

    Check that there are sufficiently big quiet zones on either side of the barcode.
    Quiet Zones are part of the barcode specifications that refer to the white spaces on either side of the bars.

    These are required to be a certain size for the barcode to scan correctly and for it to fit within the officially accepted specifications.
    Sometimes a ‘>’ is used to indicate how big the quiet zone should be.

    It is always advisable to visually check your barcode before sending it to us – look at it under a magnifying glass to see if any of the bar lines are fuzzy.

    You can find detailed information on barcode verification and how to ensure that your barcode scans well here: http://www.barcode-test.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Getting-it-Right-1st-Release-Aug-15-2012.pdf .

  • Can a consumer track my business via my barcode?

    YES, if you’ve registered your barcode through our free service:

    You need to have made your details available by registering barcodes in our online database, GEBIR.

    Without formal registration, a barcode does not appear on GEBIR.

    Consumers need only enter your barcode numbers to see the business details that you’ve made available.

    Global Electronic Barcode Information Registry (GEBIR):

    GEBIR is a unique, cloud-based service that gives access to contact information and/or product information for companies that are using registered barcodes.

    Independent registration:

    You upload your product information independently, so you can trust it to be accurate.
    See here for details on how to register on GEBIR: https://gebir.org/faq/ 

    Who typically searches GEBIR, and for what purpose? 

    • Consumers looking for more product information than is printed on the packaging.
    • Consumers looking for more manufacturer information than is printed on the packaging.
    • Buyers in retail stores, hardware chains and supermarkets looking for contact information when sourcing new products.
    • App designers looking for accurate sources of information about retail barcode numbers.
    • Distributors checking the legitimacy of products they are considering distributing.
    • Online retailers (e.g. Amazon) wanting to check the accuracy of information about products listed for sale.

    Searching for a registered barcode on GEBIR:

    1. Go to our website search here: https://internationalbarcodes.com/gebir/
    2. Type any of the following terms into the GEBIR search:
      – barcode number
      – company/product name
      – email address
      > The owner’s contact information and/or product information should display.
    3. If it doesn’t display, check your typing…
      > If the typed number is correct, it is likely that the barcode has not been formally registered.

    See also the GEBIR website: GEBIR – the Global Electronic Barcode Information Registry

6. ISBNs for books, tapes, CDs and DVDs 4 questions
  • What information products DON’T need ISBNs?

    Magazines need an ISSN, not an ISBN (see our ISSN Magazine barcode page)

    Printed Music requires a 13-digit International Standard Music Number (ISMN), and then have that converted to barcode images. To obtain these from us, please order “ISBN Barcode Images” but enter your ISMN number instead of an ISBN number into the text box before adding to cart.

  • Can I have an ISBN Barcode without an ISBN Number?

    No, this isn’t possible… the barcode is an image that can be scanned to identify your ISBN for these products, so you first need the ISBN before ordering the ISBN Barcode… you cannot have an ISBN Barcode without an ISBN.

    However, theoretically you could still sell products such as books or CDs without international formal recognition or regulation, and have your local retailer sales outlet stick on whatever general retail product barcodes they want for those products.
    i.e. your retailer could assign their own non-ISBN product barcode, but your product would not be saleable by any formal book, magazine, CD or DVD retailer.

  • How do I purchase an ISBN Barcode from you?

    International Barcode Network (IBN) members sell ISBN Barcode images online, and you receive them immediately by email.

    The procedure is simple and automated…

    1. Apply online and fill out your details (check your Email address carefully).
    2. In the Additional Information section when proceeding to checkout, include the 13-digit ISBN.
      If you have multiple ISBNs, separate them with a comma or new line. For example:
      978-1-2345-678-9-0, 978-123-4567-89-0
    3. When you make payment and submit the application, our software automatically generates your ISBN Barcode image/s in four formats and emails them to you.
    4. If you don’t receive them immediately,
      • Check that your email is functioning (for example, test-email yourself)
      • Check if they are in your Junk folder.
      • Still no explanation? It is possible that in the application you mis-spelled your Email address (happens a lot) or that there was a software error (rare, but it could happen) – please then Email the support address provided and ask that your ISBN Barcodes be manually forwarded to you.

     

  • How do I transfer the ISBN Barcode image to my product?

    You will receive the barcode image in four formats by email.

    IMPORTANT: The barcode image needs to be included in your cover design before you or your publisher goes to print.

    If you are doing your own design, choose which barcode format you prefer and insert this into your product design by means of your graphics software.

    If someone else is doing the design, simply forward your email with the four formats – they should understand how to proceed from there.

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